The Large Hadron Collider just detected a new particle that's heavier than a proton!

on . Posted in Articles of Interest

GENEVA, Switzerland (PNN) - July 7, 2017 - The Large Hadron Collider has once again done what it does best - smash bits of matter together and find new particles in the carnage.

This time physicists have come across a real charmer. It's four times heavier than a proton and could help challenge some ideas about how this kind of matter sticks together.

We've seen a lot of interesting new particles from CERN’s Large Hadron Collider "beauty" (LHCb) collaboration, which is a little sister to the ATLAS and CMS experiments that brought us the famous Higgs boson a few years back.

The experiments run in CERN's colliders all involve accelerating matter and then bringing it to a quick stop. The resulting burst of energy results in a shower of particles with different properties, most of which we're pretty familiar with.

Running these experiments over and over again and doing the maths on the sizes and behaviors of the particles as they form and interact with one another can occasionally provide something different.

We can now officially add a new kind of baryon to the zoo of particles, one that was already predicted to exist but never before seen.

The two baryons you're no doubt most familiar with are the ones that make up an atom's nucleus, called protons and neutrons.

Baryons are effectively triplets of smaller particles called quarks, which are elementary particles, meaning they aren't made up of anything smaller themselves.

Quarks come in a variety of flavors, oddly called up, down, top, bottom, charm, and strange. It is combinations of these that give us different bosons. Current models predict there are a bunch of ways quarks can make baryons, with some more common than others.

Protons consist of two ups and a down quark, while neutrons are two downs and an up. These quarks stick together under what's called the strong nuclear force, which is caused by the swapping of particles called gluons. Never let it be said that physicists lack a sense of humor.

This new baryon - made when two charm quarks and a single up bound together - was given the less whimsical name Xi cc++, so they can't all be winners.

Quarks have different masses, and charm is a beefy one. That makes this baryon a touch on the heavy side, which is good news for particle physicists.

"Finding a doubly heavy-quark baryon is of great interest as it will provide a unique tool to further probe quantum chromodynamics, the theory that describes the strong interaction, one of the four fundamental forces," said Giovanni Passaleva, the spokesperson for the LHCb collaboration.

Seeing how this particle keeps itself together compared to the predictions made by current models will help give the going theories a good shake.

Being made of two heavy quarks should give Xi cc++ a slightly different structure to protons and neutrons.

"In contrast to other baryons, in which the three quarks perform an elaborate dance around each other, a doubly heavy baryon is expected to act like a planetary system, where the two heavy quarks play the role of heavy stars orbiting one around the other, with the lighter quark orbiting around this binary system," said former collaboration spokesman Guy Wilkerson.

If you're wondering where this baryon has been hiding all this time, like many particles it doesn't hang around very long. It wasn't seen directly, but was recognized by the particles into which it broke.

The LHCb experiment is a champion at spotting these kinds of decay products, as well as making heavy quarks.

The discovery has a high statistical significance at 7 sigma. Physicists break out the champagne at 5 sigma, so we can be pretty confident Xi cc++ was produced.

If you're playing Standard Model bingo, that's one more to cross off your list.

This research has been submitted to Physical Review Letters.

Eulogies

Eulogy for an Angel
1992-Dec. 20, 2005

My Father
1918-2010

brents dad

Dr. Stan Dale
1929-2007

stan dale

A. Solzhenitsyn
1918-2008

solzhenitsyn

Patrick McGoohan
1928-2009

mcgoohan

Joseph A. Stack
1956-2010

Bill Walsh
1931-2007

Walter Cronkite
1916-2009

Eustace Mullins
1923-2010

Paul Harvey
1918-2009

Don Harkins
1963-2009

Joan Veon
1949-2010

David Nolan
1943-2010

Derry Brownfield
1932-2011

Leroy Schweitzer
1938-2011

Vaclav Havel
1936-2011

Andrew Breitbart
1969-2012

Dick Clark
1929-2012

Bob Chapman
1935-2012

Ray Bradbury
1920-2012

Tommy Cryer
1949-2012

Andy Griffith
1926-2012

Phyllis Diller
1917-2012

Larry Dever
1926-2012

Brian J. Chapman
1975-2012

Annette Funnicello
1942-2012

Margaret Thatcher
1925-2012

Richie Havens
1941-2013

Jack McLamb
1944-2014

James Traficant
1941-2014

jim traficant

Dr. Stan Monteith
1929-2014

stan montieth

Leonard Nimoy
1931-2015

Leonard Nimoy

Stan Solomon
1944-2015

Stan Solomon

B. B. King
1926-2015

BB King

Irwin Schiff
1928-2015

Irwin Schiff

DAVID BOWIE
1947-2016

David Bowie

Muhammad Ali
1942-2016

Muhammed Ali

GENE WILDER
1933-2016

gene wilder

phyllis schlafly
1924-2016

phylis schafly

John Glenn
1921-2016

John Glenn

Charles Weisman
1954-2016

Charles Weisman

Carrie Fisher
1956-2016

Carrie Fisher

Debbie Reynolds
1932-2016

Debbie Reynolds

Roger Moore
1917-2017

Roger Moore

Adam West
1928-2017

Adam West

JERRY LEWIS
1926-2017

jerry lewis